National Animal of Nepal, Cow

National animal of nepal

National animal of Nepal is the Cow. The most prevalent category of big domesticated ungulates is cattle (often referred to as cows). They are a well-known contemporary Bovinae subfamily member. They are also the most common species in the genus Bos, and they are most frequently grouped together as Bos primigenius.

Cows are reared as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products rather than as livestock for meat. Nevertheless, the transport animals (such as oxen or bullocks) are used for pulling carts and plows. The accepted national animal is the Achham cattle, a breed that belongs to the Bos indicus genus.

There are numerous aspects that distinguish Nepal, an ancient country with a rich culture and legacy, as uniquely Nepali.Nepal has been successful in creating an unrivaled identity around the world, from religion to tolerance, from peace advocacy to heroic warriors. The country’s national animal, the cow, is a symbol of maternity, nurturing, and affection.

Nepal’s culture has compelled considerable attention to the animal kingdom since it is a nation with a rich tradition that promotes peace and love. This is well demonstrated by the fact that the cow, Nepal’s national animal, is not only protected from all forms of abuse and killing but also acknowledged as such.

Religion is undoubtedly one of the main associations with Cows in Nepal. Nepal is a secular society, yet the vast majority of its citizens are Hindu. This affection and devotion for the cow is motivated by the Hindu faith. The cow is revered by Nepalese people as the embodiment of the goddess Lakshmi, the patron goddess of abundance and wealth.

The national animal of Nepal symbol of prosperity and abundance.  Which is significant to the Nepalese people, who engage mostly in agriculture, is also important.

Both the government and the people of Nepal place a high emphasis on these beliefs. Since the adoption of the new constitution, it is illegal in Nepal to slaughter cows. In addition, dairy products, which are the purest and healthiest products, are crucial in Nepalese families. These goods are usually applied in Hindu religious rites because they are seen as pure and sacred. From an economic standpoint, cow’s milk-derived butter and ghee are shipped to India. Additionally, this increases the country’s revenue.

Why is the Cow depicted as Nepal’s national animal?

Cows are said to have almost 330 million gods and goddesses inside their bodies. The Nepalese national animal represents abundance, fertility, the mother, and the production of milk, among other things.In Nepal, it is regulated by legislation and safeguarded. Therefore, harming or killing a cow is not only viewed as sinful but also as a criminal offense. As a result, it is acknowledged as Nepal’s national animal.

Within the Hindu faith of Nepal as well as India, cows (Zebu) are worshipped. They represented plenty or wealth throughout the Vedic era. They eventually attained their current position through time. They should be treated with the same reverence as “one’s mother,” according to the Mahabharata.

The legal system started to detest beef consumption in the middle of the first millennium. Cows appear in various stories from the Vedas and Puranas, despite the fact that there have never been any cow goddesses or temples dedicated to them. Krishna, the god, was born into a cowherding family and given the name Govinda, which means “protector of the cows.” Additionally, Shiva is supposed to travel on the body of a bull named Nandi.

Vedic ceremonies included the use of milk and milk products. Cow products such as milk, ghee, and curd, but also cow dung and urine (gomutra), or the combination of these five (panchagavya), started to play a bigger part in ceremonial cleansing and atonement in the post-Vedic era.

According to legend, Lord Krishna, one of the names of the revered cow, brought Surabhi to Earth to feed the children and forge a bridge between the celestial and terrestrial realms. Similar to this, the idea of Ahimsa emerged during the fifth and sixth centuries of our culture, and by 200 AD, it was already forbidden to hurt or kill cows. Scientists concluded that this took place as a result of the influence of a broad religious notion among people inhabiting a certain region of the world.

When viewed from a more technical angle, cow dung may be utilized as a fuel, fertilizer, insulator, insect repellant, and construction material. The animal and its products gain value as a result of this. Similar to that, it also uses urine as a chemical fluid to eliminate microorganisms. The cow may undoubtedly be much more valuable than it is at the moment, especially in the modern period where everyone is moving toward healthy and organic alternatives. These are a few of the key explanations for why the cow has been designated as Nepal’s national animal.

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    The Declaration of The Cow as Nepal’s National Animal

    When was the cow designated as Nepal’s national animal? When was it a subject of worship? are some of the queries that intrigue many individuals both inside and outside of Nepal.

    Cows have traditionally had a significant place in Nepal’s culture, religion, and national identity. Cows have been acknowledged as Nepal’s household animals since 1962 AD. In the Constitution of Nepal from 1962 AD, Nepal was initially referred to as a Rajashi Hindu nation. The cow was designated as Nepal’s sacred and national animal in the recently adopted 2015 constitution.

    Modern Nepal was created when the late King Prithvi Narayan Shah of the Kingdom of Gorkha joined the minor republics. The Sanskrit word Gaurakshya, which means cow protection, is where the name Gorkha itself originates. This demonstrates the connection between animals and not only religion but also powerful individuals like farmers.

    Worship of cows in Nepal

    Nepal has a rich cultural heritage. Even though Nepal is prospering and all religions are valued equally, one thing hasn’t changed: cows are still considered sacred. Worshiping the goddess Laxmi is said to make you extremely wealthy.Given that the cow is regarded as the goddess herself in Nepal, it is only natural for the population to cherish and respect the animal. This idea is honored to the point that cows are worshiped at Laxmi Puja, a festival that is primarily used to honor the goddess Laxmi.

    On the third day of Tihar, which is one of the two biggest festivals in Nepal, The National animal of Nepal cows are adorned and worshiped in the morning. The goddess of riches, Laxmi, is worshipped in the evening. Hindus see cows as the deities Laxmi and Gau-Mata (mother). During auspicious and religious events like pujas, shraddhas, rudries, and marriages, cow’s milk, butter, urine, and dung are used.

    Cows are worshipped on the day of Gai Tihar with incense, oil, light, tika, and floral garlands. Cows are given sumptuous meals after puja, including the finest grass and favorite fruits. Cows are covered in tika markings of various colors all over their bodies. Generally, the colors associated with worship are red (abir) and yellow (kesari).

    Raksha Bandhan on a cow’s tail will make it easier for you to enter the afterlife. They also utilize cow manure mixed with mud (rato mato) to clean and paint the floors of homes on the same day. Sayapatri (marigold flower) garlands are used to decorate doors and windows.

    Similarly, in some places, men and women literally use the urine of cows on their faces and heads because, believe it or not, the cow is so worshiped here. Urine is revered as a holy gift. To preserve the surroundings, urine is frequently sprayed throughout the house. Cows are also revered by Hindus, who think that cow dung helps cleanse their homes and ward off evil.

    Cows are also valued because they stand for motherhood, and their milk provides sustenance and nutrition for humanity.

    Some Barriers to Declaring the Cow as Nepal’s National Animal Under A New Constitution

    Nepal is a secular nation that respects and tolerates all of the local religions. In the Hindu faith, a cow is worshiped as the representation of the goddess Lakshmi. However, other religions like Christianity, Islam, and others do not consider it their mother. As a result, there has been a lot of dispute over the development and application of the law.

    In actuality, individuals from many religious backgrounds have spoken out against the prohibition on cow slaughter. People of other religions have a right to access what their religion permits because it is against Hindu custom to kill cows. People have questioned the restriction, defending their position with references to western customs, since we are shifting more in the direction of western influence and embracing contemporary cultures.

    The one-horned rhinoceros should be the nation’s national animal, according to the almost fifty legislators that make up the Constituent Assembly of Nepal. The one-horned rhinoceros might serve as the country’s mascot, better representing secularism and helping to maintain the animals’ presence in the country. This approach appears to be an adequate response to the problem while also recognizing and representing the variety in Nepali culture as the one-horned rhino becomes more and more uncommon within this country.

    However, fundamentally, national values are significantly more important in the country in which we live. This demonstrates that the prohibition is required in light of the history and traditions of our country. However, the cow was re-designated as Nepal’s national animal. As of right now, the Hindu religion places a similar emphasis on sacred animals as it does on people’s lives.

    Regarding the preservation of cows, legislation and regulations also exist. Anyone who kills a cow in a car accident must pay 500,000 rupees, which is equal to the sum due in the case of a person’s killing.

    Several voices were occasionally raised in approval of the slaughter of the Cows.Perhaps as a result of the influence of western society, or perhaps because people are more conscious. Cows have been used to impersonate other animals. However, the government has prohibited slaughtering cows for meat and other processes, so it is not being acknowledged.

    Connection between farmers and Nepal’s national animal, the cow

    It is true that tourism makes up the majority of Nepal’s economic base. But Nepal is also regarded as an agricultural nation aside from this. More than 80% of people depend on agriculture for their daily needs. Their primary source of revenue is farming. In this instance, cows are crucial to the farmer’s way of life. It is hard to obtain modern infrastructure and tractors in all the rural parts of Nepal due to its weak economy and mountainous terrain. As a result, farmers use cows and oxen as tractors to cultivate land and plough fields.

    In Nepalese society, cows are extensively used, particularly by farmers whose livelihoods are entirely dependent on agriculture. Recoverable manure is excreted by cows and other livestock and utilized as fertilizer. Additionally, dung was utilized as fuel for cooking. The yearly heat produced by this dung, one of the primary fuels used by rural housewives, is comparable to tons of coal, tons of wood, or tons of kerosene.

    These fuels cannot be considered viable alternatives to cow dung since Nepal only has modest oil and coal resources and is currently experiencing significant deforestation. The idea of using dung in the kitchen may not appeal to Westerners, but Nepalese women think it makes a wonderful cooking fuel since it fits in so well with their daily routines. The recommended heat source is cow dung, since it produces a food-safe, long-lasting fire that burns cleanly and slowly.

    Similar to this, a lot of meals in the kitchen use products made from cow’s milk. Instead of using refined oil, the majority of Nepalese recipes are made with ghee, a refined butter that is good for your health.

    Cow excrement also serves at least one other significant purpose, which is to cleanse the home. Mud makes up the majority of houses in rural areas. To clean such a home, Nepalese people prefer using cow dung to cover their home’s floors since it can be made into a paste by mixing it with water.

    All the information about the National Animal of Nepal, the Cow, Achham Cattle

    In Nepal, seven distinct indigenous cow breeds have been identified.Lulu, Pahadi, Siri, Khailia, Achham, and Yak are Terai cattle. The Achham cattle (Bos indicus), one of them, are among the rarest and smallest breeds of cows in the world.

    However, Achham cattle, a species of the Bos indicus breed, are referred to as national animals. Zebu cattle of the Achham breed are unique to the Achham area of Nepal. A tiny breed of cattle, Achham cattle are under 1 meter tall at the withers. Due to the fact that it is barely nine fists long from hoof to hump, it is also known as the Naumuthe cow.

    The Achhami cattle (Bos indicus) are included among Nepal’s distinctive flora and wildlife. They are mostly utilized for milk production since they are ideal for hilly areas with minimal input systems. Body colors range from black to white, including spotted black and white, brown, grey, and black.

    The National animal of Nepal Cows weigh an average of 110 kg and have a wither height of 88 cm, according to the Nepal Agriculture Research Council’s annual report on animal breeding from 2005. Bulls typically measure 97 cm at the withers and weigh 150 kg. They are raised by the farmers in the Achham, Bajhang, Bajura, and Doti districts of Nepal’s Far Western Development Region.

    An indigenous domestic cattle species or subspecies of the Indian subcontinent is the zebu (Bos indicus or Bos taurus indicus), sometimes referred to as indicine cattle or humped cattle.

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      Zebu are distinguished by their enormous dewlap, fatty hump on the shoulders, and occasionally drooping ears.

      They are raised as both pure zebu and hybrids with taurine cattle, the second major domestic cattle species, in all tropical nations because of their ability to survive high temperatures.

      Zebu are utilized as cattle for meat, dairy, and draught work, as well as for their byproducts such as skins and dung for manure and firewood. Some little breeds, like the miniature zebu, are kept as pets as well. Texas A&M University scientists cloned a zebu successfully in 1999.

      Zebu typically reaches reproductive maturity at 29 months of age. This is based on how their bodies have evolved to tolerate the stress of nursing and pregnancy. Early pregnancy and childbirth can overstress the body and perhaps decrease lifespans. The typical gestation period for a calf is 285 days; however, this might vary based on the mother’s age and diet. Given that male calves are carried for a longer period than female calves, the calf’s gender may also have an impact on the carrying time. The general health of the animal is influenced by location, breed, body weight, and season, which may also have an impact on the length of the gestation.

      The National animal of Nepal, Cows are utilized in Nepal as dairy cattle.  Draught animals, and riding animals, as well as for byproducts like skins, dung for fuel and manure, and horn for things like knife handles. According to estimates from 1998, there were 65.7 million head of carriage cows in India. Zebu cows often produce little milk. They don’t start producing much milk until they are more mature later in life. Milk output often rises when Zebu cattle are bred with taurine cattle.

      Cows are produced in several nations all over the world for the purpose of producing meat, milk, and leather. However, the slaughter of cows is prohibited in Nepal since they are revered as holy animals.

      The domestication of the cow as a farm animal began in the Middle East some 10,000 years ago. It is a herbivorous animal, eating grass, herbs, seeds, and leaves for nourishment. The majority of its food is made up of roots, mainly those from Fabaceae and grasses. They may get the required nutrients in the grasslands, including hay, clover, and water. The cow is fed nine times each day.

      Some Interesting Facts about National animal of Nepal Cows

      Cows are amazing creatures with a variety of ways to express themselves.Here are some intriguing details regarding these National animal of Nepal

      With a population of 863 and a height of less than 1 m, Achham cattle species cows are the smallest indigenous cattle breed in the world. They are exclusively found in the Khaptad buffer zone, in the Achham region of Nepal.

      • Achham animals give farmers sustenance in the form of milk, energy for agricultural endeavors, and dung for preserving and boosting soil fertility.
      • These locally bred Achham cattle make up a minor fraction of the nation’s cattle population and are mostly found in the mid- and high-hills of Achham, Bajura, Bajhang, and Doti Districts in western Nepal.
      • These kind cows are often extremely clever creatures with lengthy memories. According to studies, they form friendships, communicate in complicated social ways, and are able to recall unpleasant interactions with other cows.
      • It is regarded as sustainable animal husbandry with a promising future since it emphasizes the natural biodiversity’s capacity for resilience. These animals’ diets in the hills consist of fodder trees, straw, and very little concentrate, while high-producing animals can get concentrate feed.
      • Only 12% of this is exotic (pure and crossbred); the remainder is indigenous.
      • The smallest breed of cow is the Achham, which stands less than 1 meter tall at the withers.
      • They are appropriate for low input systems and hilly terrain.
      • Body color ranges from black to white, including shades of brown, grey, white, and black and white with spots.
      • Their ear is straight and measures 17 cm on average. Its demeanor ranges from submissive to ferocious.
      • At the age of nine years, Achham cattle had a wither height of 90.8  0.96 cm. At the age of 8 years old, the maximum body weight and length were also 149.38 5.1 kg and 98.07 1.52 cm, respectively.
      • When they figure out a problem’s solution, they become enthusiastic. They are also incredibly social creatures that create hierarchies and form well-organized social groups with guidelines.
      • The warmth of their nostrils is another way they express their feelings. According to a recent study, petting the cows in their favorite areas while they were relaxed allowed you to enjoy the pleasant sensation while also causing the nasal temperature to drop.
      • Compared to cows that lack access to fundamental necessities, happy cows who live in acceptable settings with access to shade and a sufficient degree of health are more productive.
      • It has been discovered that cows move their ears in four different directions, which is another way they may express their attitude. two: while at ease and when paying attention.
      • They may make up to 55 liters of saliva each day. They consume and chew food for 6 to 7 hours each day.
      • They can consume 130 liters of water each day and have an exceptional sense of smell that allows them to detect objects at a distance of 10 kilometers.
      • A grown cow only has eight teeth.
      • They may give birth to twins, just like humans.
      • Cows may develop compassion and empathy for people and other animals.

      Some major issues concerning National animal  of Nepal cows

      Although cows are extremely beneficial and have made contributions in many fields, there are still significant issues with cows in Nepal that are getting worse by the day. The primary issue nowadays is the large number of stray cows in Nepal, mostly due to the fact that it is illegal to kill them and there are no government programs in place to take care of them. A paralyzed cow that had ceased giving milk was even freed by a dairy farmer.

      The issue of the stray cow is not just a concern in the capital. All around the country, people may see cows on the streets. Numerous regions of the nation, where local administrations have attempted to limit the stray cow population, often report news of large cattle deaths. In four temporary shelters that farmers constructed in certain areas, more than a thousand cows perished every year from malnutrition and dehydration.

      Every year, hundreds of stray cows around the nation pass away, mostly as a result of car accidents, thirst, gastrointestinal problems, and diseases. It is prohibited to slaughter cows for food or any other reason since they are revered as holy animals and have legal protection. Cows are therefore sometimes released by dairy farmers once they stop milking or if they grow old.

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        Cow is holy National animal of Nepal

        There are thought to be more than 7.3 million cows in the nation if stray cows are included. The fact that the cow is still revered as a holy animal in secular Nepal is what accounts for the high number of stray animals.

        Besides, the primary obstacles to maintaining these priceless and significant breeds include: poor management, ineffective breeding strategies, cross-breeding, a lack of increasing focus on exploration and investigation, a decline in farmers’ interest in raising livestock, illegal trade to Tibet for slaughter, etc. As a result, the breed is in a critically endangered state.

        The owners of these cows should be held responsible since there are more stray animals and they are all in poor condition. However, more people than just the owners need to accept accountability. Considering that the cow is the national animal of Nepal, it is also the responsibility of the government to ensure that there is a suitable system in place for managing stray cows.

        Numerous people have claimed that the cow should no longer be considered Nepal’s national animal when the 2015 constitution was being written. Even Janajati activist Ang Kaji Sherpa said that the legislation forbade Adivasi-Janajatis and other marginalized communities from consuming beef by designating the cow as the nation’s animal. The Constituent Assembly ultimately resolved to follow the established course. After much deliberation, they chose the cow as Nepal’s national animal since it is highly respected and deeply ingrained in its culture.

        The traditional Hindu devotion for the cow persisted even after the nation became a secular republic, resulting in an explicit ban on the slaughter of cows for meat or any other purpose.

        Nepal may have a mostly Hindu population, but it also has a sizable Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and atheist population. The consumption of beef, which is offered in a number of stores and eateries across the Capital, is not prohibited by these groups. However, all of this beef is imported since, in accordance with the Civil Code, the killing of cows and any inflicting of suffering upon them are regarded as “heinous crimes.”


        In terms of nationality and religion, National animal of Nepal, the cow is one of the most valued and revered animals in Nepal. There is no finer icon than motherhood itself, which is a universal representation of nurturing. The National animal of Nepal not only embodies Hinduism and its principles but also Nepal and all of its traditions and moral standards. However, the cow is the ideal emblem of peace and love as Nepal’s national animal. Instead of only focusing on the animal’s name as the national animal, it is essential that we comprehend the animal’s significance.

        Given all of this, it is simple to draw the conclusion that cows are saved by the gods because they are holy, and doing so is more advantageous than killing them. In actuality, cows—which are frequently filthy—roam freely through the streets, on temple steps, and in the middle of the road. And they may be located in the most unlikely locations, where nobody, no matter how bold, dares to disturb them.

        Let’s now evaluate the cow’s advantages and disadvantages. It is obvious that the cow is considerably more productive and beneficial to us humans than we are to cows. The cow, meanwhile, serves just a million purposes.

        Yes, other animals or endangered species might be considered the National animal of Nepal, like the rhinoceros, tiger, or lion. They are not as useful as cows, but they are still quite significant from an ecological standpoint. So why all the controversy over naming the cow the national animal? Let’s just avoid approaching it from a religious or communal perspective. When viewed scientifically, though, it all makes perfect sense. We can arrange a short tour for cow farming in Nepal.


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